راهنمای ارجاع دهی

In-text citations

  • A citation is an acknowledgement in your text of references that support your work. It is in the form of a number that correlates with a source in your reference list.
  • In the Vancouver Style, citations within the text of the essay/paper are identified by Arabic numbers in round brackets. This applies to references in text, tables and figures.
  •  The Vancouver System assigns a number to each reference as it is cited.  A number must be used even if the author(s) is named in the sentence/text. e.g.  Smith (10) has argued that...
  • The original number assigned to the reference is reused each time the reference is cited in the text, regardless of its previous position in the text.
  • When multiple references are cited at a given place in the text, use a hyphen to join the first and last numbers that are inclusive. Use commas (without spaces) to separate non-inclusive numbers in a multiple citation e.g. (2,3,4,5,7,10) is abbreviated to (2-5,7,10).
  • Do not use a hyphen if there are no citation numbers in between that support your statement e.g. (1-2).
  • The placement of citation numbers within text should be carefully considered e.g. a particular reference may be relevant to only part of a sentence. As a general rule, reference numbers should be placed outside full stops and commas and inside colons and semicolons. For examples: There have been efforts to replace mouse inoculation testing with invitro tests, such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (57,60) or polymerase chain reaction (20-22) but these remain experimental.



Elements of the Citation

Author(s) – Family name and initials, multiple authors separated by a comma. Title of book. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of Publication: Publisher Name Year of Publication.

Reference Type

In-text example

Reference list example

One author

The book, “Secrets from the black bag”,

by Butler (1) shows that ...


Butler [1] purported ‘...’

1. Butler SW.Secrets from the Black Bag. London: The Royal College of General Practitioners 2005.

Two to six authors

‘... needed to influence policy.’ (2)


Cheers, Darracott and Lonne have highlighted the fact that ‘...’ (2)

2. Cheers B, Darracott R, Lonne B. Social care practice in rural communities. Sydney: The Federation Press 2007.

Six or more authors

Professionals in collaboration (3)

3. Hofmeyr GJ, Neilson JP, Alfirevic Z, Crowther CA, Gulmezoglu AM, Hodnett ED et al. A Cochrane pocketbook: Pregnancy and childbirth. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd 2008.

No author

‘...do not die from the disease (4)

4. A guide for women with early breast cancer. Sydney: National Breast Cancer 2003.

Multiple works by the same author

The main clinical and research interests of Dr Marilyn Campbell (5-6) are focused on ...

5. Campbell MA. A is for anxiety: A parent’sguide to managing anxious children. Brisbane:PostPressed 2007.

6. Campbell MA. Anthony the shy alien. Brisbane: Post Pressed 2006.

Different Editions

What has become known as the “Bible of General Practice” in Australia (7)...

7. Murtagh J. John Murtagh’s General practice. 4th ed. Sydney: McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd; 2007. An edition number is placed after the title of the work. This is not necessary for a first edition

Edited book

In all cases, it is important to note the outer diameter of the tube (8) ...

8.  Brooks A, Mahoney P, Rowlands B, editors. ABC of tubes, drains, lines and frames. West Sussex: Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2008.

Book in a series

The binding of ligand to most seven- transmembrane (STM) G-protein- coupled receptors leads to changes in the coupling of G proteins to the receptor (9) ...

Name of book = Chemokine receptors Title of series = Methods in enzymology

9. Bennett GL, Horuk R. Iodination of chemokines for use in receptor binding analysis. In: Horuk R, editor. Chemokine receptors. New York (NY): Academic Press 1997; 134-48. (Methods in enzymology; vol 288).

Electronic book – entire book

Bartlett concludes that (10)...

10. Bartlett A. Breastwork: Rethinking breastfeeding [monograph online]. Sydney, NSW: University of New South Wales Press 2005 [cited 2009 Nov 10]. Available from: NetLibrary

Translation of a book

Luria discovers that (11) ...

11. Luria AR. The mind of a mnemonist [L. Solotaroff, trans]. New York: Avon Books 1969.

Chapter in an edited book

As discussed by Rowlands and Haine (12)


12. Rowlands TE, Haine LS. Acute limb ischaemia. In: Donnelly R, London NJM, editors. ABC of arterial and venous disease. 2nd ed. West Sussex. Blackwell Publishing 2009.

Chapter in a book

...due to endometriosis (13)...

13. Speroff L, Fritz MA. Clinical gynaecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins 2005. Chapter 29, Endometriosis 1103-33.

Need to enter the Chapter information and page numbers manually

Chapter from an electronic book

Darwin believes that the natural selection (14) ...

14. Darwin C. On the Origin of Species by means of natural selection or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life [internet]. London: John Murray 1859. Chapter 5, Laws of Variation. [cited 2010 Apr 22]. Available from: http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/origin/chapter5.html

Persian Book

Rafeei believes that the natural selection (12) ...

12. Rafeei T. [Ritmic movements and games: Coaching, therapists and families manuals (Persian)]. Tehran: Danzheh Publication 2013;1-61.


 Dictionary or Encyclopedia

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example


‘is defined as ... (15)

15. Stedman’s medical dictionary. 26th ed. Baltimore:Williams & Wilkins 1995. Apraxia; 119-20.

Note:  Include the defined topic – e.g. apraxia

Dictionary (online)

‘is defined as ... (16)

16.  Stedman’s medical dictionary. *Internet+. 26th

ed.  Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins 1995. Apraxia;

.119 -20. [cited 2009 Nov 11]. Available from: http://www.stedmans.com


‘Hanrahan has advocated that ...’ (17)

17. Brookman F. Hair care products. In:  McDonough J, Egolf K, Reid JV, editors. The Advertising Age encyclopedia of advertising. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn 2003; 2:703-08


Journal Articles

Elements of the Citation

Author(s) – Family name and initials. Title of article. Title of journal – full name. Publication year; volume(issue):pages.

Note: Journal titles may be abbreviated according to the style used in the PubMed database. Go to the PubMed Journals database site: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=journals to look up journal abbreviations (to find the full journal name). Choose the Journals in NCBI Databases ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals) link.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Standard journal article – one author

As highlighted by Snowdon, (18)...

18. Snowdon J. Severe depression in old age. Medicine Today 2002;3(12):40-47.

Standard journal article – two authors

McInnes & Bollen (19) have developed a perspective which identifies

19. McInnes D, Bollen J. Learning on the job: metaphors of choreography and the practice of sex in sex-on- premises venues. Venereology 2000; 13(1):27-36.

Standard journal article – three to six authors

By using meta-analysis, Skalsky et al (20) ...

20. Skalsky K, Yahav D, Bishara J, Pitlik S, Leibovici L, Paul M. Treatment of human brucellosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2008 Mar 29;336(7646):701-4.

Journal article – more than six authors

Hanna et al (21) report in this article that ...

21. Hanna JN, McBride WJ, Brookes DL, Shield J, Taylor CT, Smith IL, Craig SB, Smith GA. Hendra virus infection in a veterinarian. Medical Journal of Australia  2006;185(10):562-64.

Journal article – in press

O’Leary (22) states that...

22. O’Leary C. Vitamin C does little to prevent winter cold. The West Australian.  Forthcoming 2005

Electronic article – with DOI number

Fletcher & Wagstaff (23) argue that


23. Fletcher D, Wagstaff CRD. Organisational psychology in elite sport: its emergence, application and future. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 2009;10(4):427-34. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport. 2009.03.009.

Electronic article

– without DOI number

According the Lemanek (24)...

24. Lemanek K. Adherence issues in the medical management of asthma. Journal of Pediatric Psychology [ Internet]. 1990 [cited 2010 Apr 22];15(4):437-58. Available from: http://jpey.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/

Enter cited date manually and change medium to internet  or leave as serial online as entered by Endnote

Cochrane Library Review

Results found by Shaw et al (25)...

25. Shaw KA, O'Rourke P, Del Mar C, Kenardy J. Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet] 2005 [cited 2010 Apr 10]. Available from:http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD003818 /frame.html

Article from UQ eReserve


Results found by Shaw (26)...

26. Shaw J. Epidemiology and prevention of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Medical Journal of Australia [Internet] 2003;179:379-83. Available from: University of Queensland Library E-Reserve

Persian Article

Jafari found by Shaw (27)...

27. Jafari Z, Karimi H, Sazmand AH, Malayeri S. [The comparison of handedness between 12-18 year old normal and congenitally deaf students (Persian)]. Journal of Rehabilitation 2007; 8(1):25-34.


Conference papers

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of paper – Family name and initials. Title of paper. In: Editor(s) Family name and initials, editor(s). Title of conference; Date of conference;  Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher’s name Year of publication; Page numbers.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Published conference paper

This is well documented in the literature. (27)

27. Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC. Degoulet P. Piemme TE, Reinhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics 1992:6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North Holland; 1992: 1561-5

Unpublished conference paper

It has been found that endemic STD’s (28)

28. Bowden FJ, Fairley CK. Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner exchange. Paper presented at: The Scientific Meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians 1996: 24-25; Darwin, Australia.

Conference proceedings

Research (29) supports...

29. Kimura J. Shibasaki H, editors. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology 1995: 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.

Note: In the “conference title” field type in “Paper presented at:” and then enter all details of conference including the date and where conference took place.

Enter the place of publication in the “Conference location” field


In the ‘Publisher’ field – enter the place of publication, publisher and the year eg. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.



Newspaper and magazine articles

Elements of the citation

Author(s) – family name and initials. Article title. Newspaper title (edition of paper eg. Weekend edition). Date of publication – year month (3 letter abbreviation) day: Sect. Location eg. A:12 or Business 5 (5 is the page number) column number is applicable eg. col. 1) (Sect = Section)

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Newspaper article with author

“many parents did not feed their babies enough” (30-31)...

30. Purdon F. Colder babies at risk of SIDS.The Courier Mail 2010 Mar8:9

31. Robertson J. Not married to the art. The Courier Mail (Weekend edition) 2010: 6-7:Sect. ETC:15

Newspaper article without author

The counsellors (32)...

32. Meeting the needs of counsellors. The Courier Mail 2001:5:22

Magazine article

The findings of the research (33)...

33. Marano HE. Making of a perfectionist. Psychol Today 2008;41:80-86

Electronic newspaper or magazine article

Reports of the extent of damage in Chile (34)...

34. Bajak F. Why Chile dodged Haiti-style ruin. Toronto Star (Canada) [serial online] 2010 [cited 2010 Mar 14]; Sect. News:A14 Available from: Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre

Electronic newspaper article on the Internet

The success of the Clem7 tunnel (34)...

35. Drivers told: “Don’t use Clem7 tunnel”.The Courier Mail [Internet] 2010: [cited2010 Mar 16]; Availablefrom: http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/car-with-flat-tyre-the-first-to-cause-problems-in-clem7- tunnel/story-e6freon6-1225841179464

36. Sack K. With Medicaid cuts, doctors andpatients drop out. The New York Times [Internet].2010 Mar 16 [cited 2010 Mar 16]; Health:A1.Available

from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/16/health/policy/16medicaid.html?ref=health


Reports and other Government publications

Elements of a report citation

Author(s). Title of report. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication – year month if applicable. Total number of pages if applicable eg. 24 p. Report No.: (if applicable)

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example




/Technical report

Climate change (37)...

37.Australia. Parliament. Senate. SelectCommittee on Climate Policy. Climate policyreport. Canberra: The Senate 2009

38.Page E, Harney JM. Health hazard evaluation report. Cincinnati (OH): National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US) 2001:24. Report No.:HETA2000-0139-2824



Elements of the citation for a thesis

Printed Thesis: Author. Thesis title [type of thesis]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.

Online Thesis: Author. Thesis title [type of thesis on the internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year [cited date – year month day]. Available from: Name of database/web address

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example


The research is support by Kay (39) ...

39. Kay JG. Intracellular cytokine trafficking and phagocytosis in macrophages [PhD thesis]. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland 2007.

Thesis – retrieved from database/internet

The research (40)...

40. Pahl KM. Preventing anxiety and promoting social and emotional strength in early childhood: an investigation of aetiological risk factors [PhD thesis]. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 24]. Available from: University of Queensland Library E-Reserve

Persian Thesis

Bandarianzadeh believed that (41)

41. Bandarianzadeh D. [Evaluation of pregnant women irontherapy in primary health care system at the villages of Kerman city (Persian)]. [MA Thesis] Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences 1993: 25–27.



Elements of the citation

Author. Title of publication [type of medium – Internet]. Place of publication (if available): Publisher (if available); Date of publication – year month day (supply year if month and day not available) [updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available from: web address.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Web page - with author

Behaviour medication (41)...

41. Atherton, J. Behaviour modification [Internet]. 2010 [updated 2010 Feb 10; cited 2010 Apr 10]. Available from: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/b ehaviour_mod.htm

Webpage – no author

Coping with ADHD (42)...

42. The family impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) [Internet] 2009 [updated 2010 Jan 1; cited 2010 Apr 8]. Available from: http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com.au/health andlifestyle.asp?sid=192&title=The-Family- Impact-of-Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity- Disorder-%28ADHD%29&page=2

Webpage – no date

Memory loss (43) is linked...

43. McCook A. Pre-diabetic condition linked to memory loss [internet] 2010 [cited 2010 Apr 14]. Available from: http://preventdisease.com/news


If neither a date of publication nor a date of copyright can be found for a Web site, use the date of update/revision and/or the date cited

Webpage – corporate author

Swine flu (44)...

44. Queensland Health. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (Human Swine Influenza) [Internet] 2010 [updated 2010 Feb 19; cited 2010 Apr 7]. Available from: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/ swineflu/

Web Article with DOI

Drug dependence (45)...

45. Degenhardt L, Bohnert KM, Anthony C. Assessment of cocaine and other drug dependence in the general population: ‘Gated’ vs. ‘ungated’ approaches. Drug Alcohol Depend [Internet] 2008 [cited 2010 Apr 15]; 93(3):227-232. Available from:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2 756072/DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.09.024

Web Article with no DOI or feely available on Web

Research shows that diabetes (46)...

46. Merzouk H, Bouchenak M, Loukidi B, Madani S, Prost J, Belleville J. Fetal macrosomia related maternal poorly controlled type 1 diabetes strongly impairs serum lipoprotein concentrations and composition. J Clin Pathol [internet] 2000 [cited 2010 Apr 15]; 53:917-923. Available from: http://jcp.bmjjournals.com/content/53/12/917.f ull.pdf+html

Image on a webpage

The image of the rash (47)

47. Scarlet Fever Rash Picture (Hardin MD Super Site Sample) [image on the Internet] 2005 [updated 2008 Feb 1; cited 2010 Apr 14]. Available from: http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/hardin/md/dermatlas/scarletfever.html


Other Internet Sources

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example


The latest fossil discover (48)...

48. Dirks, P. “Missing Link” fossil discovery in South Africa [podcast on the internet]. Sydney: ABC Radio National 2010 [updated 2010 Apr 9; cited 2010 Apr 14]. Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/rn/breakfast/stories/201 0/2868072.htm

Blog Post

The list (49)...

49. East J. New medical journals terms list. 2010 Jan 25 [cited 2010 Apr 20] In: East J. EndNote: EndNote updates at UQ [Internet]. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Library. 2007-2010- . [about 5 screens].Available from: http://blogs.library.uq.edu.au/endnote/2010/01/ 25/new-medical-journals-term-list/