1. Fakhouri T, Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM: Prevalence of obesity among older adults in the United States, 2007–2010. NCHS Data Brief 2012;106:1-8.
2. Nguyen DM, El-Serag HB: The epidemiology of obesity. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America 2010;39:1-7.
3. De Onis M, Blössner M, Borghi E: Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;92:1257-64.
4. Devarshi PP, Jangale NM, Ghule AE, Bodhankar SL, Harsulkar AM: Beneficial effects of flaxseed oil and fish oil diet are through modulation of different hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism in streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Genes & Nutrition 2013;8:329-42.
5. Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Wasserman DH, Castaneda-Sceppa C, White RD: Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006;29:1433-8.
6. 6. Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B, Regensteiner J: Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes: The American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes A. Diabetes Care 2010;33:12.
7. Egan B, Zierath JR: Exercise metabolism and the molecular regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation. Cell Metabolism 2013;17:162-84.
8. Pedersen BK, Febbraio MA: Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 2012;8:457-65.
9. Boström P, Wu J, Jedrychowski MP, Korde A, Ye L, Lo JC, et al.: A PGC1-a dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis. Nature 2012;481:463-468.
10. Haas B, Schlinkert P, Mayer P, Eckstein N: Targeting adipose tissue. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 2012;4:43.
11. Lee P, Linderman JD, Smith S, Brychta RJ, Wang J, Idelson C, et al.: Irisin and FGF21 are cold-induced endocrine activators of brown fat function in humans. Cell Metabolism 2014;19:302-9.
12. Timmons JA, Baar K, Davidsen PK, Atherton PJ: Is irisin a human exercise gene? Nature 2012;488:E9-E10.
13. Garekani ET, Mohebbi H, Kraemer RR, Fathi R: Exercise training intensity/volume affects plasma and tissue adiponectin concentrations in the male rat. Peptides 2011;32:1008-12.
14. Jashni HK, Mohebbi H, Delpasand A, Jahromy HK: Caloric restriction and exercise training, combined, not solely improve total plasma adiponectin and glucose homeostasis in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Sport Sciences for Health 2010; 1-6.
15. Shepherd R, Gollnick P: Oxygen uptake of rats at different work intensities. Pfluegers Archiv 1976;362:219-22.
16. Lee S, Farrar RP: Resistance training induces muscle-specific changes in muscle mass and function in rat. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online 2003;6:80-7.Huh JY, Siopi A, Mougios V, Park KH, Mantzoros CS: Irisin in response to exercise in humans with and without metabolic syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2015;100:E453-E7.
17. Winn NC, Grunewald ZI, Liu Y, Heden TD, Nyhoff LM, Kanaley JA: Plasma irisin modestly increases during moderate and high-intensity afternoon exercise in obese females. PLoS One 2017;12:e0170690.
18. Daskalopoulou SS, Cooke AB, Gomez Y-H, Mutter AF, Filippaios A, Mesfum ET, et al.: Plasma irisin levels progressively increase in response to increasing exercise workloads in young, healthy, active subjects. European Journal of Endocrinology 2014;171:343-52.
19. Kim H-J, Lee H-J, So B, Son JS, Yoon D, Song W: Effect of aerobic training and resistance training on circulating irisin level and their association with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults: a pilot study. Physiological Research 2016;65:271.
20. Huh JY, Panagiotou G, Mougios V, Brinkoetter M, Vamvini MT, Schneider BE, et al.: FNDC5 and irisin in humans: I. Predictors of circulating concentrations in serum and plasma and II. mRNA expression and circulating concentrations in response to weight loss and exercise. Metabolism 2012;61:1725-38.
21. Roca-Rivada A, Castelao C, Senin LL, Landrove MO, Baltar J, Crujeiras AB, et al.: FNDC5/irisin is not only a myokine but also an adipokine. PLoS One 2013;8:e60563.
22. Norheim F, Langleite TM, Hjorth M, Holen T, Kielland A, Stadheim HK, et al.: The effects of acute and chronic exercise on PGC‐1α, irisin and browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans. FEBS Journal 2014;281:739-49.
23. Lecker SH, Zavin A, Cao P, Arena R, Allsup K, Daniels KM, et al.: Expression of the irisin precursor FNDC5 in skeletal muscle correlates with aerobic exercise performance in patients with heart failure. Circulation: Heart Failure 2012;5:812-8.
24. Suwa M, Nakano H, Radak Z, Kumagai S: Endurance exercise increases the SIRT1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α protein expressions in rat skeletal muscle. Metabolism 2008;57:986-98.
25. Hargreaves M, McKenna MJ, Jenkins DG, Warmington SA, Li JL, Snow RJ, et al.: Muscle metabolites and performance during high-intensity, intermittent exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 1998;84:1687-91.
26. Knutti D, Kressler D, Kralli A: Regulation of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1 via MAPK-sensitive interaction with a repressor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001;98:9713-8.
27. Jäger S, Handschin C, Pierre JS, Spiegelman BM: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) action in skeletal muscle via direct phosphorylation of PGC-1α. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2007; 104(29):12017-12022.
28. Chen Z-P, Stephens TJ, Murthy S, Canny BJ, Hargreaves M, Witters LA, et al.: Effect of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle AMPK signaling in humans. Diabetes 2003;52:2205-12.
29. Winder W, Hardie D: AMP-activated protein kinase, a metabolic master switch: possible roles in type 2 diabetes. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 1999;277:E1-E10.
30. Winder W: Intramuscular mechanisms regulating fatty acid oxidation during exercise. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1998;441:239-48.
31. Hadie D, Carling D: The AMP-activated protein kinase-fuel gauge of the mammalial cell. European Journal of Biochemistry 1997;246:259-73.
32. Raney MA, Yee AJ, Todd MK, Turcotte LP: AMPK activation is not critical in the regulation of muscle FA uptake and oxidation during low-intensity muscle contraction. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 2005;288:E592-E8.
33. Raney MA, Turcotte LP: Regulation of contraction-induced FA uptake and oxidation by AMPK and ERK1/2 is intensity dependent in rodent muscle. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 2006;291:E1220-E7.