1. Gorgani S. The relationship between type II diabetes and obesity (T2DM & Obesity) Review. Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research 2012; 2(7): 40-44. [In Persian].
2. Yousefepoor P, Tadibi V, Bahpor N, Parno A, Dalbari A, Rashidi S. Effects of aerobic exercise on glycemic control and risk factors CVD in people with type 2 diabetes. Medical Journal of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences 2015; 57(9): 976-984. [In Persian].
3. Rubin D, Mcmurray R, Harrell J, Hackney A, Thorpe D, Haqq A. The association between insulin resistance and cytokines in adolescents: the role of weight status and exercise. Metabolism 2008; 57(5): 683-690.
4. Izadi M, Goodarzi M, Soheili Sh, Samari Khalaj R, Doali H, Kiyani F. The effect of a short time exercise on adiponectin and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients: A short report. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences 2014; 12(10): 863-70. [In Persian].
5. Askari A, Askari B, Fallah Z, Kazemi Sh. Effect of eight weeks aerobic training on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in women. Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences 2012; 14(1): 26-32. [In Persian].
6. Grace A, Erick C, Francesco G, Petra L, Neil A. Clinical outcomes and glycaemic responses to different aerobic exercise training intensities in type II diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovascular Diabetology 2017; 2(4): 1-9
7. Aghamohammadi M, Habibi A, Ranjbar R. The effect of selective aerobic training on serum irisin levels and insulin resistance index in women with type 2 diabetes. Arak Medical University Journal 2016; 18(104): 1-9. [In Persian].
8. Boström P, Wu J, Jedrychowski MP, Korde A, Ye L, Lo JC, et al. A PGC1 dependent myokine that drives br own-fat-like development of white fat and thermo genesis. Nature 2012; 481: 463-8
9. Brenmoehl J, Albrecht E, Komolka K, Schering L, Langhammer M, Hoeflich A, et al. Irisin is elevated in skeletal muscle and serum of mice immediately after acute exercise. International Journal of Biological Sciences 2014; 10(3):338-9
10. Huh JY, Panagiotou G, Mougios V, Brinkoetter M, Vamvini MT, Schneider BE, et al. FNDC5 and irisin in humans: I. Predictors of circulating concentrations in serum and plasma and II. mRNA expression and circulatingconcentrations in response to weight loss and exercise. Metabolism 2012; 61(12):1725-38
11. Timmons JA, Baar K, Davidsen PK, Atherton PJ. Is irisin a human exercise gene? Nature 2012; 488(7413):9-10
12. Kurdiova T, Balaz M, Vician M, Maderova D, Vlcek M, Valkovic L, et al. Effects of obesity, diabetes and exercise on Fndc5 gene expression and irisin release in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: in vivo and in vitro studies. The Journal of Physiology 2014; 592(5):1091-107.
13. Seo DY, Kwak HB, Lee SR, Cho YS, Song I-S, Kim N, et al. Effects of aged garlic extract and endurance exercise on skeletal muscle FNDC-5 and circulating irisin in high-fat-diet rat models. Nutrition Research and Practice 2014; 8(2):177-82.
14. Li L, Zheng C, Bukuru J, De N. Natural medicines used in the traditional Chinese medical system for therapy of diabetes mellitus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2004; 92(7): 1- 21.
15. Soeda S, Ochiai T, Shimeno H, Saito H, Abe K, Tanaka H. Pharmacological activities of crocin in saffron. Journal of Natural Medicine 2007; 61(5): 102-11.
16. Hosseinzadeh H, Nassiri M. Avicenna’s (Ibn Sina) the Canon of Medicine and Saffron (Crocus sativus L.): A Review". Phytotherapy Research 2013; 27(4): 475-83.
17. Garcia C, Riese H, Escribano J, Ontanon J, Fernandez A, Atienzar M. et al. Effects of long-term treatment of colon adenocarcinoma with crocin, a carotenoid from saffron (Crocus sativus L.): an experimental study in the rat. Nutrition and Cancer 1999; 35(5): 120-126.
18. Nathan C. Winn1 Z, Grunewald Y, Timothy D, Lauren M, Jill A. Plasma irisin modestly increases during moderate and high-intensity afternoon exercise in obese females. PLOS ONE 2017; 12(1): 1-12.
19. Jaqueline P, Francisco M, Prado L, Matheus B, Raissa M, José A. Low irisin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without current treatment: a systematic review. International Archives of Medicine Section: Endocrinology 2017 10(171): 1-9.
20. Guilford BL, Parson JC, Grote CW, Vick SN, Ryals JM, Wright DE. Increased FNDC5 is associated with insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice. Physiological Reports 2017; 5(13):12-19.
21. Perakakis N, Triantafyllou G, Fernández-Real JM, Huh JY, Park KH, Seufert J, et al. Physiology and role of irisin in glucose homeostasis. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 2017; 13(6): 324-337.
22. Xi L, Qian Y, Shen C, Wen N, Zhang B. Crocetin prevents dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in rats. Planta Medica, 2005; 71(3): 917-22.
23. Xi L, Qian Z, Du P, Fu J. Pharmacokinetic properties of crocin (crocetin digentiobiose ester) following oral administration in rats. Phytomedicine 2007C; 14(2); 633–6.
24. Xi L, Qian Z, Xu G, Zheng S, Sun S, Wen N, et al. Beneficial impact of crocetin, a carotenoid from saffron on insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2007b; 18(4): 64-72.
25. Xi L, Qian Z, Xu G, Zhou C, Sun S. Crocetin attenuates palmitate-induced insulin insensitivity and disordered tumor necrosis factor-a and adiponectin expression in rat adipocytes. British Journal of Pharmacology 2007a; 151(7): 610-617.
26. Altinoz E, Oner Z, Elbe H, Cigremis Y, Turkoz Y. Protective effects of saffron (its active constituent, crocin) on nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Human & Experimental Toxicology 2015; 34(2): 127-34.
27. Azimi P, Ghiasvand R, Feizi A, Hosseinzadeh J, Bahreynian M, Hariri M, et al. Effect of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron and ginger consumption on blood pressure and a marker of endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Blood Pressure 2016; 25(7): 133-40.
28. Shirali S, Bathayi SZ. Nakhjavani M, Ashoori MR. Effects of saffron (Crocus Sativus L.) aqueous extract on serum biochemical factors in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 2012; 28 (2): 308-293.
29. Aryaeian N, Arablou T, Sharifi F, Hosseini A, Valizadeh M. Effect of ginger consumption on glycemic status, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology 2014; 9(1): 1-10. [In Persian].
30. Mounira L, Charles L. Cantrell b. Quantification of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) metabolites crocins, picrocrocin and safranal for quality determination of the spice grown under different environmental Moroccan conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 2012; 121(4): 366–373.
31. Tofighi A, Ghafari G. Effects of regular aerobic training accompanied by omega-3 supplementation on soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and lipid profiles of obese elderly women. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology 2013; 8(3): 35-44. [In Persian].
32. Ghaffarpour M, Houshiar RA, Kianfar H. Household of Scales Guide, Conversion coefficients and Percent of Edible food. Tehran, Publication of Agricultural Sciences 2000; 25: 24-29.
33. Praet S, Loon L. Optimizing the therapeutic benefits exercise in type 2 diabetes. J Appl Physiol 2007; 103: 1113-1120.
34. Nezamdoust Z, Saghebjoo M, Barzgar A. The effects of Twelve weeks of aerobic exercise on serum levels of Vaspin, fasting glucose and resistance Insulin in Patients with Type II diabetes. Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism 2014; 14(2): 99-104. [In Persian].
35. Swain D, Hrltz B. the fuel calculations (application of equations). 1nd ed. Iran: Tehran. Publishers; 2001. P. 1: 4-112.
36. Meamarbashi A, Rajabi A. The effects of peppermint on exercise performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2013; 10: 15-21.
37. Fujimoto W. The importance of insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Medicine 2000; 108(11): 9-14.
38. Erkelens DW. Insulin resistance syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Cardiology 2001; 88(7): 38-42.
39. Chavez J, Holland W, Bar J, Sandhoff K, Summers S. Acid ceramidase overexpression prevents the inhibitory effects of saturated fatty acids on insulin signaling. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 2005; 280(5): 48 –53.
40. Bhargava VK. Medicinal uses and pharmacological properties of Crocus sativus Linn (Saffron). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2011; 3(3): 22-26.
41. Sheng L, Qian Z, Zheng S Xi L. Mechanism of hypolipidemic effect of crocin in rats: crocin inhibits pancreatic lipase. European Journal of Pharmacology 2006; 543(1): 116-122.
42. Kianbakht S. a systematic review of the pharmacology of saffron and its active ingredients. Journal of Medicinal Plants 2008; 7(4): 1-27. [In Persian].
43. Kim Y, Nam J, Dong W, Kim K, Sang H, Chul W. The effects of aerobic exercise training on serum osteocalcin, adipocytokines and insulin resistance on obese young males. Clinical Endocrinology 2015; 82(2): 686-694.
44. Annibalini G, Francesco D, Luciana V, Annamaria E, Michele G, LuciaCasade P. Concurrent aerobic and resistance training has anti- inflammatory effects and increases both plasma and leukocyte levels of IGF-1 in late middle-aged type 2 diabetic patients. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2017; 10(2): 1-10.
45. Maiorana A, Driscoll G, Goodman C, Taylor R, Green D. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise improves glycemic control and fitness in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2002; 56: 115- 123.
46. Hardini P. Role of Aerobic exercise as an antidiabetic therapy in Type2 Diabetes Mellitus: A pilot study. IJTRR 2017; 6(1): 76-82.
47. Rahman S, Khosravi N, Yazdan dost H, Ayate M. Comparison of moderate intensity and high intensity aerobic intermittent training on serum resistin levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic obese women. Sports Sciences 2016; 8(3): 380-365.
48. Razavi BM, Imenshahidi M, Abnous K, Hosseinzadeh H. Cardiovascular effects of saffron and its active constituents: A review article. Journal of Agriculture and Technology of Saffron 2013; 1(2): 1-13. [In Persian].
49. He SY, Qian ZY, Tang FT, Wen N, Xu GL, Sheng L. Effect of crocin on experimental atherosclerosis in quails and its mechanisms. Life Sciences 2005; 77(3): 907-921.
50. Asdaq SM, Inamdar MN. Potential of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituent, crocin, as hypolipidemic and antioxidant in rats. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2010; 162(9): 358-372.
51. Mehdizadeh A, Hamzezadeh S, Tofighi A. Investigation of Plasma Visfatin Changes in Women with Type 2 Diabetes followed by Endurance, Resistance and Combined Exercise: The Role of Lipid Profile, Glycemic Indices and Insulin Resistance. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism 2016; 7(4): 703-712.
52. Zhang X, Zhang Y, Zhao D, Wu J, Zhao J, Jiao X, et al, editors. Relationship between blood glucose fluctuation and macro vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 2014; 18(4): 3593-3600.
53. Richard D, Wendy K, Richard K, Eugene J, Eric C, Barbara A, et al, editors. Critical Review Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: Critical review and evidence base. Nutrition 2015; 31(5): 1–13.
54. Arasteh A, Aliyev A, Khamnei S, Delazar A, Mesgari M, Mehmannavaz Y. Effects of hydromethanolic extract of saffron (Crocus sativus) on serum glucose, insulin and cholesterol levels in healthy male rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2010; 4(2): 397-402.
55. Yang C, Hsu K, Hwang H, Hong J. Enhancement of glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by Toona sinensis leaf extract. Journal of Medical Science 2003; 19(8): 327-33.
56. Rahman S, Mohammad Reza A, Mahboobe K, Sadegh A. The effect of submaximal aerobic training on serum irisin level in obese men; with emphasis on the role of irisin in insulin-resistance change. Arak Medical University Journal 2016; 19(109): 20-30. [In Persian].
57. Kang C, Lee H, Jung E, Seyedian R, Jo M, Kim J, et al. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in muscle cells via multipathway mechanisms. Food Chemistry 2012; 135(4): 2350-8.
58. Dehghan F, Hajiaghaalipour F, Yusof A, Muniandy S, Hosseini S, Heydari S, et al. Saffron with resistance exercise improves diabetic parameters through the GLUT4/AMPK pathway in-vitro and in-vivo. Scientific Reports 2016; 28(6): 25-39.
59. Farkhondeh T, Samarghandian S. The effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its ingredients on the management of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2014; 8(20): 541-549.